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Title: CH4 emissions from rice yield and quality on Climate Change and Mitigation strategies by Agricultural water management
Applicant’s Name: Nessreen Nazmy Bassuony AbdelEl-hamid
Affiliation: Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center
Field: Agronomy and Plant Breeding
Keywords: CH4 emissions; Climate Change; Mitigation; Rice
Rice is the staple food crop of the world population. The world population continues to grow steadily, while land and water resources are on the decline. Studies suggest that temperature increase, rising seas and changes in patterns of rainfall and its distribution under global climate changes might lead to substantial modifications in land and water resources for rice production as well as the productivity of rice crops grown in different parts of the world. The emission of methane and nitrous oxide gases from lowland rice production and the deforestation in upland rice production under slash-and-burn shifting cultivation are contributors to global climate changes. The sustainable increase of rice production for food security will require efforts to enhance the capacity of rice production systems to adapt to global climate change as well as to mitigate the effects of rice production on global warming. Technical options for adaptation and mitigation are available and could be further improved. Policy support to rice research and development to develop and transfer appropriate and efficient technologies, however, will be vital for the realization of such measures for sustainable rice production.
II. Overview and Literature:
Rice is one of the most important staple foods for more than half of the world’s population (IRRI, 2006) Climate change is one of the most pressing environmental problems that the world is currently facing. Rice production, , is a large source of atmospheric methane, therefore a large contributor to global warming (FAO, 2004). According to the IPCC, estimates of the global emission rate from paddy fields are 60 Tg/year (Smith et al., 2007). Under anaerobic conditions of submerged soils of flooded rice fields, the methane is produced predominately escapes from the soil into the atmosphere .Rice production systems to adapt are made more difficult by climate change, programmes that mitigate the impact of rice production on the natural resource base particularly evident in rice production, where the warm and waterlogged rice fields provide an optimal environment for CH4 production. Rice production is responsible for 50 to 1 000 million tonnes CH4/year and is probably the largest of the human-induced sources of this GHG (FAO, 2007). Research has shown that it is possible to reduce CH4 emissions from rice production by changing the breeding programme for drought-prone rainfed lowland rice in order to increase tolerance. In addition, a study indicated that Water saving irrigation managements without the use of organic amendments is an effective option for mitigating the combined climatic impacts from CH4 in paddy rice production (Zou et al., 2005). The present study was undertaken to identify and quantify the potential reductions in GHG emissions due to the Agricultural water management
III. Research Objectives:
1-Significance of CH 4 emissions on Climate Change
2- CH4 emissions from rice cultivation
3- Mitigation strategies
IV. Methodology:
Greenhouse pot experiment
1. Soil preparation In house fabricated plastic ware pots (PVC pipes glued and sealed with plastic caps with polymer silicone) measuring 20 cm (height) x 15 cm (internal diameter) were filled with 2.5 kg of soils
2. Handling of nursery rice seedling
3 Seed pre-germination Rice (Oryza sativa ) seedlings were grown in a nursery . Working tables were cleaned with absolute ethanol including forceps and petri dishes. Laboratory coats and gloves were used in working/handling of seeds. One hundred grams of seeds were sterilized by soaking the seed in 90 % ethanol solution for 3 minutes followed by soaking in a 3.5 % bleach solution for 30 minutes. Sterilized seeds were soaked and swirled in a beaker with deionized water for one day at 30 oC, followed by soaking in 50 o C for 10 minutes . Floating seeds (unfilled or partially filled) were removed from the beaker and discarded. We filte rpaper (using deionized water) was placed inside a petri dish, and seeds were transferred using forceps. The seeds were arranged in a manner that there would be no crowding. The seeds were wetted with water through the filter paper until it was saturated. Petri plates were covered and placed in an incubator at30 o C for 3 ‐ 4 days or until seeds started to germinate. The plates were watered when required and were not let to dry.
4. Nursery soil preparation:Soils from 1 and 2 were sterilized by autoclaving at 170 oC for 3 hours A soil mixture of sterilized 3 Kg each from BAU 1and 2, chicken manure, NPK mixture (urea+TCP+KCl) was totally mixed and placed in a plastic tray of about 5 cm thick with holes at the bottom. The plastic trays were placed in a bigger plastic tray for maintaining water outside the trays. The set up was placed in the Ugent Bioscience Engineering’s rice room (growth chamber room, maintained at 28 o C with artificial light regime of 12 hours lights on and 12 hours light off). Nursery seedlings were after seeding (DAS). All the material s used were sterilized using 90 % ethanol solution. 16‐day-old seedlings were transplanted at 2 hills per pot and further grown
5-Fertilizer application:Fertilizers were applied by broadcasting at the rate of 120-¬‐40-¬‐40 gNPK ha-¬‐1. Phosphorus as tricalcium diphosphate and potassium as KCl was applied to all the pots as basal dressing. Nitrogen was applied a s urea in three equal splits 14, 35 and 65 days after transplanting (DAT). The pots were maintained under appropriate water managements up to maturity (see water management section. Plant growth stages including panicle initiation (beginning of the reproductive phase)
Water management:three different water regimes of irrigation were maintained : (1) continuous flooding (CF), in which water depth will be maintained at 3 cm above the soil surface for the duration of the experiment (2) safe alternate wetting and drying (AWD), in which water depth will be maintained at 3cm water depth and then withholding irrigation until the water level was at 10 cm depth below surface or when the soil water potential (SWP) reached 10 KPa prior to re - irrigation to 3 cm floodwater depth (except for 10 days after transplanting and around flowering, where all plots will be maintained flooded) (Bouman et al. 2007) (3) mid -­‐ season drainage (MSD), where the water depth is the same as with CF but with a drainage at the middle the season for 1 week starting at 50 DAT he irrigation and drying is represented by the blue and brown shaded part, respectively.
Gas sample collection and measurement :CH4 fluxes were measured by the closed chamber method (Sass et al. 1990) at 5 day intervals from the day of transplanting until maturity. Individual planted pots were placed on a tray and were covered with a locally fabricated acrylic (Plexiglass) chamber s(34 cm length x 34 cm width x 70 cm height). The tray (as the base) was filled with water to a depth of 2 cm, which will act as an air seal when the Plexiglas boxes were placed on the tray. Inside the chamber, a 12 -V AC fan was installed to mix the air. Gas samples were collected using a double needle assembly to three pre -­‐ evacuated exetainer tubes on each sampling time. Twelve mL exetainer vials were evacuated using a set -­‐ up were air was evacuated from the vials creating a vacuum , then followed by releasing helium (He) gas in to the vials. The procedure was repeated twice and finishing with evacuation as the last steps intervals of 0, 15 and 30 mins after each chamber had been closed in all the pots (Adhya et al. 1994). The concentrations of CH4, from the gas samples were analyzed using gas chromatographs (GC) . GC (ThermoFinnigan Trace GC Ultra, USA) was equipped with a FID detector (flame ionization detector) for CH 4 analysis. The gas chromatographs were calibrated before each set of measurement using Helium standards (1 ppm CH ) The emissions of the gasses, expressed as mg m-¬‐2d-¬‐1 were calculated using the following equation (IAEA 1992):
CH4 emissions (mg m-¬‐2d-¬‐1) = (slope (ppm min-¬‐1) x Vc x MW x 60 x 24y)/(22.4xv (273+)/273)xACx1000)
Where: Vc–is the volume of the gas chamber in L1000 –is μg mg‐1;MW –molecular weight of the respective gas ;Ac–is the area of the pot with rice in m2;60–is min h-¬‐1;T–temperature inside the chamber in°C;24–
h d -1;273–standard temperature in K ; and 22.4–volume of 1 mol of gas in L at standard temperature and pressure.
The concentrations of chamber gases were calculated using least squares linear regression by regressing gas concentration within a chamber against sampling time, correcting for temperature and chamber volume. The average of the 3-time interval flux readings was calculated as the average flux value for each treatment. The total cumulative emissions for the whole season will be estimated from the first gas sampling up to the last gas sampling (seasonal total emissions).
VI: Impact of the Research Outcomes:
1-This aims at helping align its climate risk management to the predicted serious threats to the country. The Programme will include mitigation activities.
2- To develop a decision support tool for predicting and mitigating likely impacts of climate change on agricultural production and the environment along the coastal areas 3-Describe the adaptation strategies adopted by rice farmers to cope with the effect of
climate change
4-Enhanced capacity to adapt to climate change.
VII. References:
Bouman,B.A.M.,Lampayan,R.M.,Tuong,T.P.,2007.WaterManagement in Irrigated Rice: Coping with Water Scarcity. International Rice Research Institute, Los Ba ̃nos, Philippines.
SAS Rl. Fisher FM .Harcombe PAand Turner FT(1990)Methane and production and emission in Texas rice field .Global biogeochem Cycles 4:47-68.
Adhya, T.K., A.K. Rath, , P.K. Gupta, V.R. Rao, S.N. Das, K.M. Parida, D.C. Parashar and N. Sethunathan (1994). Methane emission from flooded rice fields under irrigated conditions. Biology and Fertility of Soils 18: 243-248.
International Atomic Energy Agency, Computer Codes for Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment, IAEA-TECDOC-553, Vienna (1990). IRRI. 2006. Bringing hope, improving lives: Strategic Plan2007–2015. Manila (Philippines). 61 p.
FAO. 2004 .Global climate changes and rice food security. N.V. Nguyen. Rome (available at http://www.fao.org/climatechange/media/15526/0/0/).
FAO. 2007. Building adaptive capacity to climate change: policies to sustain livelihoods and fisheries. New Directions Fisheries: A Series of Policy Briefs on Development IssuesNo. 08. Rome.
Smith, P., Martino, d., Cai, Z., gwary, d., Janzen, h.,Kumar, P., McCarl, B., Ogle, S., O’Mara, F., Rice, C.,Scholes, B. & Sirotenko, O. 2007: Agriculture. In Climate
Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working GroupIII to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IntergovernmentalPanel on Climate Change [B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R.Bosch, R. Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds)], Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
Zou, J., huang, T., Jiang, J., Zheng, X. & Sass, R.l. 2005.A 3-year field measurement of methane and nitrous oxideemissions from rice paddies in China: effects of water regime,crop residue, and fertilizer application. Global Biogeochem.
Cycles, 19. GB2021. doi:10.1029/2004GB002401.

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