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27 projets européens trouvés

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 EN COURS 
Most of our knowledge on human development and physiology is derived from experiments done in animal models. While these experiments have led to a comprehensive understanding of the principles of neurogenesis, animal models often fall short of modelling many of the most common neurological disorders. Recent experiments have revealed characteristic striking differences in brain development between ...
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 EN COURS 
Transposable elements—universal components of genomes—pose a major threat to genome integrity due to their mutagenic character. In all eukaryotic lineages small RNA pathways act as defense systems to protect the host genome against the activity of transposons. The central pathway in animals is the gonad-specific PIWI interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway, one of the most elaborate but also least underst ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 
Neuropsychiatric disorders account for 1/5 of the total disease burden in Europe causing mental anguish and decreased quality of life for those affected, especially for schizophrenia patients. An intriguing theory suggests that altered brain development results in schizophrenia, and the selective cellular defects in parvalbumin (PV) inhibitory interneurons observed in schizophrenic patient brains ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 
The development of the human brain is a key and fascinating question in neurobiology. Studies in model organisms have provided enormous insight into basic mechanisms of neurogenesis, which relies on the balance between proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. Although human neurogenesis follows the same principles, human specific processes that lead to human brain expansion are larg ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 

Regulation and function of linear ubiquitination by HOIP (LUbi)

Date du début: 1 juil. 2014, Date de fin: 30 juin 2019,

Ubiquitin (Ub) is a small protein modifier, regulating diverse biological functions such as signalling, DNA repair and proteasomal degradation. Ub can form polymers via 7 Lys residues of Ub itself. Recently, we have discovered that an E3 ligase complex, Linear Ubiquitin chain Assembly Complex (LUBAC) generates a novel type of Ub polymer linked via Met-1, ‘linear Ub chain’ and regulates NF-kB sign ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 

Molecular Characterization of the microRNA Life-Cycle (miRLIFE)

Date du début: 1 févr. 2014, Date de fin: 31 janv. 2019,

Small silencing RNAs regulate gene expression in nearly all eukaryotes and have enormous biotechnological and therapeutic potential. MicroRNAs belong to the larges family of trans-acting gene regulatory molecules in multicellular organisms. In flies and mammals, they control more than half of the protein-coding transcriptome, and act as key regulators of organismal development, physiology, and dis ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 

Chromosome inheritance from mammalian oocytes to embryos (ChromHeritance)

Date du début: 1 févr. 2014, Date de fin: 31 janv. 2019,

One of the most dramatic transitions in biology is the oocyte-to-zygote transition. This refers to the maturation of the female germ cell or oocyte, which undergoes two rounds of meiotic chromosome segregation and, following fertilization, is converted to a mitotically dividing embryo. We aim to establish an innovative research program that addresses fundamental questions about the molecular pro ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 
"Some organisms such as yeast or social insects are haploid, i.e. they carry a single set of chromosomes. Organisms with a single copy of their genome provide a basis for genetic analyses where any recessive mutation of essential genes will show a clear phenotype due to the absence of a second gene copy. Recessive genetic screens have markedly contributed to our understanding of normal development ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 
Transferring results from animal models to humans is a major bottleneck in pharmaceutical research. This is particularly true for brain disorders, including neurodegenerative and developmental diseases. Both animal models and conventional cell culture methods fail to recapitulate the complexity of the human brain and there are fundamental differences in developmental and physiological aspects betw ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 

European Consortium for Communicating Stem Cell Research (EuroStemCell)

Date du début: 1 janv. 2015, Date de fin: 31 mars 2018,

The European Consortium for Communicating Stem Cell Research (EuroStemCell) unites 33 partner institutions, that collectively represent >400 stem cell research groupings across Europe. Our common goal is to provide trusted high quality information on stem cells accessible to citizens and stakeholders across Europe, through support and further development of the multi-lingual European Stem Cell Inf ...
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 32

 TERMINÉ 
"Cell division underlies the growth and development of all living organisms. Following partitioning of bulk cytoplasmic contents by cleavage furrow ingression, dividing animal cells split by a distinct process termed abscission. Whereas a number of factors required for abscission have been identified in previous studies, it is not known by which mechanism they mediate fission of the intercellular ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 

Epigenetics towards systems biology (EPIGENESYS)

Date du début: 1 oct. 2010, Date de fin: 31 mars 2016,

The ‘EpiGeneSys’ Network of Excellence aims to enable European epigenetics research to enter the arena of systems biology, a new step forward with major implications for human health. Many diseases, not explained solely by gene mutation, have rather been associated with epigenetic disorders. Following the identification of key epigenetic regulators, a move towards a systems biology approach is nee ...
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 28

 TERMINÉ 

Apelin inhibition as an anti-cancer therapy (APELIN THERAPY)

Date du début: 1 févr. 2014, Date de fin: 31 janv. 2016,

The spread of cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout Europe and beyond. As the growth of solid tumours is dependent on the formation of a neovascular supply, inhibition of tumour-induced neoangiogenesis represents an actively pursued strategy to treat human cancers. Current anti-angiogenic therapies are, however, hampered by the onset of resistance through upregulation of ad ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 
Biological processes occur in space and time, but current experimental methods for systems biology are limited in their ability to resolve this spatiotemporal complexity of life. In addition, traditional “omics” methods often suffer from limited sensitivity and need to average over populations of cells at the expense of cell to cell variation. Next-generation systems biology therefore requires met ...
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 11

 TERMINÉ 
The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized biology. As a technology it opened up new experimental and therapeutic avenues. As a biological phenomenon it changed our view on a diverse array of cellular processes. Among those are the control of gene expression, the suppression of viral replication, the formation of heterochromatin and the protection of the genome against selfish gen ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 

Mechanisms of Neurogenesis from Drosophila to Human (Rosette NSC Screen)

Date du début: 1 mars 2013, Date de fin: 30 juin 2015,

Neurogenesis in the mammalian neocortex depends upon asymmetric cell divisions to maintain a balance between self-renewal and neuronal differentiation. This process is likely a key element governing the expansion of the human cerebral cortex, and its disruption can lead to severe developmental disorders such as microcephaly and lissencephaly. However, mechanisms of asymmetric cell division in mamm ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 

Systems Biology of Mitosis (MitoSys)

Date du début: 1 juin 2010, Date de fin: 31 mai 2015,

... l mass and multidisciplinarity that is needed to achieve this ambitious goal, internationally leading mathematicians, biochemists/biophysicists and biologists working at twelve universities, research institutes, international organizations and companies in eight different European countries will collaborate. Mathematicians will focus on four biological modules that represent the most important asp ...
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 14

 TERMINÉ 
The aim of this proposal is to understand how self-renewal is controlled in neural stem cell lineages and how defects in this process can lead to the formation of brain tumors in model organisms. The system we use are Drosophila neuroblasts, stem cell like progenitors in the developing fly brain that undergo repeated rounds of asymmetric cell division. During each division, protein determinants ca ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 
While chromosomes fill the nuclear space as decondensed chromosome territories during interphase, they are dramatically re-structured into compact rod-shaped rigid bodies during mitosis. The aim of my work is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this cell cycle-dependent chromosome reorganization. Unlike previous studies, I plan to focus on a yet poorly characterized chromosomal domain ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 

RNA directed DNA elimination in Tetrahymena (Tetrahymena)

Date du début: 1 sept. 2008, Date de fin: 31 déc. 2013,

Tetrahymena eliminates micronuclear-limited sequences from the developing macronucleus during sexual reproduction (DNA elimination). It is believed that the DNA to be eliminated is identified by their homology with ~28 nt small RNAs (scnRNAs) which are made by a RNAi-related mechanism. Detailed mechanisms as well as exact biological functions of the RNA-directed DNA elimination remain obscure. The ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 
"Cancer care will be revolutionized over the next decade by the introduction of novel therapeutics that target the underlying molecular mechanisms of the disease. With the advent of human genetics, a plethora of genes have been correlated with human diseases such as cancer the SNP maps. Since the sequences are now available, the next big challenge is to determine the function of these genes in the ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 
Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports a link between chronic inflammation and cancer and indicates a role for inflammatory cells in the initiation, progression and metastasis of malignancy. The objective of the collaborative integrated project INFLA-CARE is to structure a European collective of scientific and technological excellence in the field of ‘Inflammation & Cancer’ which will ...
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 22

 TERMINÉ 

Elucidation of the function of DDX3X in innate immunity (DDX3X Function)

Date du début: 1 févr. 2011, Date de fin: 31 janv. 2013,

Viral infections are among the most frequent causes of human diseases and affect most people worldwide. While some viral diseases have been successfully combated, novel viral diseases like AIDS, SARS, avian influenza A H5N1, or the swine influenza A H1N1, have emerged over the last decades. Research aiming at elucidating mechanisms of viral infection and the involved immune response is, therefore, ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 

European Consortium for Systematic Stem Cell Biology (EUROSYSTEM)

Date du début: 1 mars 2008, Date de fin: 31 août 2012,

EuroSyStem brings together elite European research teams to create a unique and world-leading programme in fundamental stem cell biology. By interconnecting complementary biological and computational expertise we will drive the generation of new knowledge on the characteristics of normal and abnormal stem cells. We will pave the way for application of systems methodology by measuring and modelling ...
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 25

 TERMINÉ 
All eukaryotic genomes contain mobile genetic elements called transposons. They can be described as “endo-parasites” at the genomic level and come in a variety of classes including endogenous retroviruses. The uncontrolled spread of transposons to new genomic sites poses a serious threat, e.g. due to insertional mutagenesis. How the host functionally silences transposons remained mysterious for a ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 
"A Europe-wide consortium of experimental biologists, biomathematicians, biostatisticians, computer scientists and clinical scientists will team up to approach cell death pathways in health and disease, placing particular emphasis on cancer and AIDS. The consortium will create a unique database integrating existing and accumulating knowledge on lethal signal transduction pathways leading to apopto ...
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 24

 TERMINÉ 

Vienna Biocenter European Researchers Night (VBC ERN)

Date du début: 1 mai 2009, Date de fin: 30 nov. 2009,

"Science is central to the success of the European society and to tackle some of the major problems mankind is facing in the near future. Nevertheless, negative stereotypes about scientists persist. While a slow erosion of these stereotypes is detectable, continued and sustained efforts are necessary to overcome this prevalent barrier to increase the number of scientists in Europe. The most effici ...
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