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Origins and factors governing adaptation: Insights from experimental evolution and population genomic data (ADAPT)
Date du début: 1 avr. 2013, Date de fin: 31 mars 2018 PROJET  TERMINÉ 

"I propose a systematic study of the type of genetic variation enabling adaptation and factors that limit rates of adaptation in natural populations. New methods will be developed for analysing data from experimental evolution and population genomics. The methods will be applied to state of the art data from both fields. Adaptation is generated by natural selection sieving through heritable variation. Examples of adaptation are available from the fossil record and from extant populations. Genomic studies have supplied many instances of genomic regions exhibiting footprint of natural selection favouring new variants. Despite ample proof that adaptation happens, we know little about beneficial mutations– the raw stuff enabling adaptation. Is adaptation mediated by genetic variation pre-existing in the population, or by variation supplied de novo through mutations? We know even less about what factors limit rates of adaptation. Answers to these questions are crucial for Evolutionary Biology, but also for believable quantifications of the evolutionary potential of populations. Population genetic theory makes predictions and allows inference from the patterns of polymorphism within species and divergence between species. Yet models specifying the fitness effects of mutations are often missing. Fitness landscape models will be mobilized to fill this gap and develop methods for inferring the distribution of fitness effects and factors governing rates of adaptation. Insights into the processes underlying adaptation will thus be gained from experimental evolution and population genomics data. The applicability of insights gained from experimental evolution to comprehend adaptation in nature will be scrutinized. We will unite two very different approaches for studying adaptation. The project will boost our understanding of how selection shapes genomes and open the way for further quantitative tests of theories of adaptation."