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 EN COURS 

Cracking the epitranscriptome (CrackEpitranscriptom)

Date du début: 1 nov. 2016, Date de fin: 31 oct. 2021,

Over 100 types of distinct modifications are catalyzed on RNA molecules post-transcriptionally. In an analogous manner to well-studied chemical modifications on proteins or DNA, modifications on RNA - and particularly on mRNA - harbor the exciting potential of regulating the complex and interlinked life cycle of these molecules. The most abundant modification in mammalian and yeast mRNA is N6-meth ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
Phytoplankton blooms are ephemeral events of exceptionally high primary productivity that regulate the flux of carbon across marine food webs. The cosmopolitan coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) is a unicellular eukaryotic alga responsible for the largest oceanic algal blooms covering thousands of square kilometers. These annual blooms are frequently terminated by a specific large dsDN ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
... rodents and bats navigate over kilometer-scale distances. Nothing is known about how the brain supports such real-life navigation. We will utilize a 1-km long test facility at the Weizmann Institute of Science, and record place cells and grid cells in bats navigating over biologically relevant spatial scales. Further, we will compare neural codes for space in wild-born bats versus bats born in t ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

New Directions in Sustainable Catalysis by Metal Complexes (SUSCAT)

Date du début: 1 juil. 2016, Date de fin: 30 juin 2021,

The discovery of novel sustainable catalytic reactions is a major current goal. Based on recent discoveries in our group, we plan to develop unprecedented sustainable catalytic reactions with special emphasis on reactions catalyzed by complexes of earth-abundant metals.We have recently discovered an intriguing reaction, namely the oxidation of organic compounds using water, with no added oxidant, ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
The perpetual arms race between bacteria and phage has resulted in the evolution of efficient resistance systems that protect bacteria from phage infection. Such systems, which include restriction enzymes and CRISPR-Cas, have major influence on the evolution of both bacteria and phage, and have also proven to be invaluable for molecular and biotechnological applications. Although much have been le ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

Quantum fluids of photons in optically-induced structures (Q-PHOTONICS)

Date du début: 1 juin 2016, Date de fin: 31 mai 2021,

A variety of classical optical systems exhibiting rich and complex matter-like behavior have been explored in recent years. Unfortunately in the optical regime, photons – the fundamental constituents of light – do not interact strongly with one another, and therefore cannot be used for studying many-body effects. It is only in the extreme regime of quantum nonlinear optics where effective interact ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

Extremes in logarithmically correlated fields (LogCorrelatedFields)

Date du début: 1 juin 2016, Date de fin: 31 mai 2021,

The proposed research deals with the extremes of logarithmically correlated fields, in both the Gaussian and non-Gaussian setups. Examples of such fields are branching random walks, the (discrete) two dimensional Gaussian free field, the set of points left uncovered by a random walk on the two dimensional torus at times close to the cover time of the torus, the (absolute) values of the characteris ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins are a major tool that the cell uses to monitor events and initiate appropriate responses. While a protein is defined by its backbone of amino acid sequence, its function is often determined by PTMs, which specify stability, activity, or cellular localization. Among PTMs, ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like (Ubl) modifications were shown to regulate a va ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

Genetically Encoded Multicolor Reporter Systems For Multiplexed MRI (GeneREFORM)

Date du début: 1 mai 2016, Date de fin: 30 avr. 2021,

In order to fully understand the complexity of biological processes that are reflected by simultaneous occurrences of intra and inter-cellular events, multiplexed imaging platforms are needed. Fluorescent reporter genes, with their “multicolor” imaging capabilities, have revolutionized science and their founders have been awarded the Nobel Prize. Nevertheless, the light signal source of these repo ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

Cellular Dynamics of Intestinal Antibody-Mediated Immune Response (GutBCells)

Date du début: 1 mai 2016, Date de fin: 30 avr. 2021,

Vaccination is widely used to prevent human diseases by inducing the formation of cellular and antibody-mediated immune responses for induction of long lasting immunological memory. Although most studies focus on immune responses elicited against injected immunizations, the simplest delivery of a vaccine regimen is by oral administration. The cellular and molecular components of the antibody immun ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

Colloidal Quantum Dot Quantum Optics (ColloQuantO)

Date du début: 1 mai 2016, Date de fin: 30 avr. 2021,

Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals have already found significant use in various arenas, including bioimaging, displays, lighting, photovoltaics and catalysis. Here we aim to harness the extremely broad synthetic toolbox of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots in order to utilize them as unique sources of quantum states of light, extending well beyond the present attempts to use them as single p ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

Genetic and Small Molecule Modifiers of Lysosomal Function (LysoMod)

Date du début: 1 mars 2017, Date de fin: 28 févr. 2021,

LysoMod will innovate in the area of personalized medicine for disorders linked to lysosomal dysfunction. This will be achieved by implementing a collaborative staff-exchange program between highly complementary and multidisciplinary academic and non-academic partners with expertise in pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, cell biology, biochemistry, mouse and human genetics, transcriptomics, proteom ...
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 8

 EN COURS 
Instruct-Ultra aims to advance the scope and efficiency of implementation of Instruct and consolidate the foundations for long-term sustainability. This will be achieved through specific objectives: expand Instruct membership to new Member States and increase global links; engage new user communities; improve efficiencies in service delivery; improve data capture and management; adjust the scale a ...
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 19

 EN COURS 
For a new green revolution to feed the continually increasing population, agriculture productivity will have to be significantly improved. Photorespiration represents a big challenge in this respect, because it dissipates energy and leads to the futile loss of CO2, thereby limiting plant growth yield. Implementing an efficient metabolic bypass for photorespiration can therefore increase the photos ...
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 6

 EN COURS 

VISUALIZATION OF TOPOLGICAL STATES IN PRISTINE NANOWIRES (TOPO-NW)

Date du début: 1 janv. 2016, Date de fin: 31 déc. 2020,

Topological phases of matter have been at the center of intense scientific research. Over the past decade this has led to the discovery of dozens of topological materials with exotic boundary states. In three dimensional topological phases, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been instrumental in unveiling the unusual properties of these surface states. This success, however, did not encompass ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
In condensed matter physics there are several iconic predictions that have evaded experimental discovery for many decades. Well-known examples include the proposed fractionally-charged quasiparticles in one-dimension, the theorized quantum crystal of electrons, and the elusive Kondo cloud. These sought-after many-body states all share two key aspects underscoring why they are so hard to discover: ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

Nano Voltage Sensors (NVS)

Date du début: 1 janv. 2016, Date de fin: 31 déc. 2020,

To understand how the brain works, tools need to be developed that will allow neuroscientists to investigate how interactions between individual neurons lead to emergent networks. Towards this goal, we will develop targetable voltage sensing nanorods that self-insert into the cell membrane and optically and non-invasively record action potentials at the single particle and nanoscale level, at mult ...
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 4

 EN COURS 
Carbon fixation is a prerequisite for accumulating biomass and storing energy in most of the living world. As such, it supplies our food and dominates land and water usage by humanity. In agriculture, where water and nutrients are abundant, the rate of carbon fixation often limits growth rate. Therefore increasing the rate of carbon fixation is of global importance towards agricultural and energet ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

Exploiting light and material interaction (lightMaterInt)

Date du début: 1 déc. 2015, Date de fin: 30 nov. 2020,

The interaction between light and material leads to beautiful visual phenomena that greatly enrich our perception of the world. The ability to measure and model light scattering is central to almost any field of science. However, light transport in rich scenes is a complex process involving a long sequence of scattering events. Computationally modeling, reproducing and acquiring the processes gen ...
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 2

 EN COURS 
Limiting the climate change-induced temperature increase to less than 2°C will require strong reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Lightweight materials and fibre-reinforced composites in particular, are a key enabling technology to achieve this goal. Current composite applications are however strongly overdesigned due to a lack of reliable design tools and predictive models for their mechanica ...
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 10

 EN COURS 

Systematic exploration of peroxisomal structure and function (PeroxiSystem)

Date du début: 1 sept. 2015, Date de fin: 31 août 2020,

Peroxisomes are ubiquitous and dynamic organelles that house many important pathways of cellular metabolism. This key organelle propagates cellular signals for differentiation, development and metabolism, and thus it is no surprise that a large number of diseases, including metabolic disorders, have been linked to peroxisomal dysfunction. Despite the importance of peroxisomes many fundamental ques ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
Topological phases arise from a fascinating interplay between quantum mechanics and many-body physics. They exhibit an abundance of extraordinary properties, such as protected edge and surface modes, exotic particle statistics, and non-local correlations. These make them not only scientifically stimulating, but also appealing for ground-breaking future applications, such as quantum computing using ...
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 2

 EN COURS 
"We test the working hypothesis that humans are constantly engaging in social chemosignaling, and that this serves as a major yet underappreciated force in shaping human social behavior. A major component of social chemosignaling in macrosmatic mammals is conveying of social status, namely dominance/submissiveness. We start by testing the novel hypothesis that humans similarly share information on ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
Within a decade, advances in single-cell genomics would allow humanity to embark on a coordinated international effort to discover the human cell lineage tree. The goal of LineageDiscovery is to lay the biological, computational and architectural foundations for this envisioned project and demonstrate its feasibility and value.An organismal cell lineage tree is a rooted, labelled binary tree where ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
The herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects the majority of the world's population, leading to severe diseases in millions of newborns and immunocompromised adults annually. During infection, HCMV extensively manipulates cellular gene expression to maintain conditions favorable for efficient viral propagation. Identifying the pathways that the virus relies on or subverts is of great inter ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
It is now clear that many intergenic regions in eukaryotic genomes give rise to a range of processed and regulated transcripts that do not appear to code for functional proteins. A subset of these are long (>200 nt), capped and polyadenylated RNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase II and collectively called long intervening noncoding RNAs or lincRNAs. The recent estimates are that the human genome enc ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

Distributed Biological Algorithms (DBA)

Date du début: 1 mai 2015, Date de fin: 30 avr. 2020,

This project proposes a new application for computational reasoning. More specifically, the purpose of this interdisciplinary project is to demonstrate the usefulness of an algorithmic perspective in studies of complex biological systems. We focus on the domain of collective behavior, and demonstrate the benefits of using techniques from the field of theoretical distributed computing in order to e ...
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 2

 EN COURS 
The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is one of the few areas in the adult mammalian brain that exhibits neurogenesis, the continuous generation of new neurons. Much evidence indicates that adult neurogenesis contributes to hippocampal-dependent cognition, but the nature of this contribution remains elusive. I envisioned that the clearest path towards understanding the function of adult neurogenesis ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
For many years, the ubiquitin-26S proteasome degradation pathway was considered the primary route for proteasomal degradation. However, it is now becoming clear that proteins can also be targeted for degradation by a ubiquitin-independent mechanism mediated by the core 20S proteasome itself. Although initially believed to be limited to rare exceptions, degradation by the 20S proteasome is now unde ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
One can view the representation theory of a topological group as non-commutative harmonic analysis on the group. For compact groups this view is justified by the Peter-Weyl theorem. The relative representation theory of a group is harmonic analyses on spaces with transitive group action.I work in relative representation theory of reductive (algebraic) groups over local fields, e.g. the general lin ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 

High-Intensity Coherent Nonlinear Optics (HICONO)

Date du début: 1 oct. 2015, Date de fin: 30 sept. 2019,

Optical laser-based technologies are a key technology of the 21st century. Extension of the range of scientific and commercial laser applications requires a constant expansion of the accessible regimes of laser operation. Concepts from nonlinear optics, driven with ultra-fast lasers provide all means to achieve this goal. However, nonlinear optics typically suffer from low efficiencies, e.g. if hi ...
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 9

 TERMINÉ 

Infrastructure for NMR, EM and X-rays for translational research (iNEXT)

Date du début: 1 sept. 2015, Date de fin: 31 août 2019,

Structural biology provides insight into the molecular architecture of cells up to atomic resolution, revealing the biological mechanisms that are fundamental to life. It is thus key to many innovations in chemistry, biotechnology and medicine such as engineered enzymes, new potent drugs, innovative vaccines and novel biomaterials.iNEXT (infrastructure for NMR, EM and X-rays for Translational rese ...
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 23

 TERMINÉ 

NanoSmells: Artificial remote-controlled odorants (NanoSmell)

Date du début: 1 sept. 2015, Date de fin: 31 août 2019,

"Despite years of promise, an odor-emitting component in devices such as televisions, phones, computers and more has yet to be developed. Two major obstacles in the way of such development are poor understanding of the olfactory code (the link between odorant structure, neural activity, and odor perception), and technical inability to emit odors in a reversible manner. Here we propose a novel mult ...
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 6

 TERMINÉ 

The LHC Battle for Naturalness on the Top Charm Front (TOPCHARM)

Date du début: 1 juil. 2014, Date de fin: 30 juin 2019,

Now that a Higgs-like particle has been discovered naturalness becomes the most pressing and fundamental question within the reach of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The main contribution that destabilises the electroweak scale comes from a top-quark loop. The key for addressing the naturalness problem is thus identifying the top partners that are stabilizing the weak scale.We consider the follo ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 

Ultracold Quantum Matter (UQUAM)

Date du début: 1 juil. 2013, Date de fin: 30 juin 2019,

Quantum mechanics is the basis of our understanding of the microscopic world. It is also central to the collective behaviour of matter at low temperatures, leading to unique properties that defy our classical intuition. The comprehension of such ‘quantum matter’ and the ability to master it using a newly developing set of ‘quantum technologies’ is not only of fundamental interest but holds the p ...
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 5

 TERMINÉ 

Cellular Destruction Mechanisms that Create New Lives (SPERMDESTRUCT)

Date du début: 1 mai 2014, Date de fin: 30 avr. 2019,

Apoptosis, the major form of programmed cell death (PCD), is executed by caspases. However, activation of caspases can also promote a variety of vital cellular processes. Furthermore, cell death can sometimes proceed in the absence of apoptotic caspases by triggering alternative cell death (ACD) pathways. The main goal of my proposal is to delineate the molecular mechanisms, pathways and component ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 

microRNAs confer robustness to adult beta–cell identity (MIRNABETAIDENTITY)

Date du début: 1 avr. 2014, Date de fin: 31 mars 2019,

Normal physiology depends on defined functional output of differentiated cells. A century of Developmental–Biology studies revealed diverse mechanisms for differentiation, however once ‘terminally’ differentiated, cells are thought to naïvely stay put. However differentiated cells are surprisingly fragile, for example, phenotypic collapse and de–differentiation of β–cells was recently discovered i ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 
Translation maps the transcriptome onto the proteome. It is regulated at the initiation levels and also by mRNA secondary structure, and – our current focus – by the interplay between the mRNA and tRNA pools. Although a lot is known about the mechanics of translation, its effects on physiology, particularly on proliferation and differentiation in mammals presents major open questions.tRNAProlif of ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 

Neutral Quasi-Particles in Mesoscopic Physics (NEUTRAL)

Date du début: 1 mars 2014, Date de fin: 28 févr. 2019,

I propose to study ‘neutral excitations’ in 2d and 1d electronic systems. Such excitations, rarely studied, are unique since they are chargeless but may carry energy. Being byproducts of electron interaction, they come in a few flavors: (i) Downstream modes in composite edge channels of the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) regime; (ii) Upstream modes in the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQH ...
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 1

 TERMINÉ 
Axon growth potential declines during development, contributing to the lack of effective regeneration in the adult central nervous system. What determines the intrinsic growth potential of neurites, and how such growth is regulated during development, disease and following injury is a fundamental question in neuroscience. Although multiple lines of evidence indicate that intrinsic growth capabilit ...
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 1