The modification of pumps and water lifting plants for energy purposes
This short presentation is a summary of two Italian patent deposits, No. 102015000048796 regarding the amendment of the pumps and No. 102015000048789 regarding the amendment of pumping stations, both deposited the day 07/09/2015
The state of the art in the exploitation of water resources on land and hydropower generation has been conditioned by the absence of synergies between the pumps and hydraulic turbines and from the incorrect approach to the gravitational force, which is not to be won by the hydraulic lifting but sustained, with circulation of water one way in open reservoirs, placed in the top which also act as hydraulic disconnection. With the triple synergy between the dual power supply pumps, turbines and water recycling in an open vessel, applying hydraulic principles known for centuries, such as the principle of communicating vessels, the laws of Bernoulli and Pascal, strategically placing the electric double inlet pumps (That do not exist but lacking only a mouth) between a high hydraulic head positive and the turbines, dimensioned for the exploitation of the same hydraulic load, the pumps, working with a balanced load, with a small energy consumption, win the state of inertia, allowing the transformation of 'pressure energy of the intubated water column overlying the pump into kinetic ; Therefore the turbines produce energy also from stagnant waters, without the classical hydraulic ; But with dual supply pumps we have the possibility to replace in the recycling circuit almost 50% of the nominal flow of the pump with water from a water reservoir placed at a lower hydrostatic level without the efficiency production is seriously affected, if not for a small decrease in ; In this way we can produce energy even lifting the water to defend the territory against flooding.
Patent demand No. 102015000048796: Changing the pumps
In terrestrial applications, if we really want to avoid immense energy waste, and we want to reduce large works such as dams and water reservoirs in the mountains we need to change the entire system of raising and management of drinking water, for industry, agriculture and also for the defense of the territory against flooding. In fact, we can do all of these works producing energy instead of consuming it.
It is necessary to change the pumps, not design, because the technology developed in this area is huge, even more than than it actually need. In this sector lacking only the pumps with dual power supply on the suction side, that will allow to feed the impeller with two flow having different hydrostatic pressures and thus use may be to use the greater hydrostatic pressure to lift water with hydrostatic pressure lesser, non-bypassing the force of gravity and atmospheric pressone but using them in one direction. In fact in the phase of descent of the water the natural forces help the pump to drive the turbine which converts the kinetic energy into electrical energy, while at the turbine outlet, the water would rise upward carried by the water recycled in the open vessel and the pressure recovery permitted by enlargement of the section of the connecting pipe to the tank top. Therefore, they will exploit the force of gravity and atmospheric pressure in the phase of descent of the water. But not being able to have large volumes of water, the water is raised, at low cost, by inserting it in the recycle loop connected to the upper reservoir.
The pumps dual power supply on the suction side, do not exist but are simple to realize by changing the pump power supply current, not the construction technology of the same. In fact, by feeding the impeller from the outside by two confluences (curved or grafts with different angle) channeled internally, so that the two flows cross each other and nourish the pump impeller into four separate sectors, arranged diagonally, two fed with water to be lifted and two fed with recycled water from the top, equipped with high hydrostatic pressure. . Balancing in that way, the hydraulic thrust on the impeller and bearings, and by getting its flows right into the impeller, so that there is no contact before being dragged from the impeller, we can turn all plumbing current by absorbing energy to producers of the same, of course, also modifying the installations.
We start from the heart of a pump that is the impeller, which can produce an axial flow, semi axial or radial and can be opened, closed or semi-closed, depending on the pump body in which is mounted. There are also pumps with impellers double, with horizontal shafts and dual fuel at the same pressure, that have excellent performance, but we do not take them into account, since the pumps that we propose to take advantage of both the hydraulic principles of communicating vessels and Pascal, who allow increments of flows and pressures at low energy cost, they must be supplied with different hydrostatic pressures
The helical impeller is constituted by a propeller that lets water through and produces a conical flow, giving a low increase in pressure and acceleration.
the open impeller is constituted by a disc on which are arranged the vanes which guide the fluid towards the periphery of the disc conferring an average increase of pressure and acceleration.
The closed impeller as the impeller is open but is equipped with an against disk which has the function of stiffening the vanes to fortify them, both to reduce leakage, being used to transmit higher pressures.
There are many other types of pump impellers for dirty liquids and cleaned, tested, and proven for each application. These impellers are a cross between these three main ;
The below figure shows an electric pump ducted turned over to make better use of the hydrostatic pressure of water with axial or semi axial flow for high flow and low heads, to power a hydraulic turbine and produce hydroelectric power also raising a part of the water circulating within the pump. The system can only operate if the mouths are fed under the head and equipped with check valves, in particular for the mouth fed with less pressure. As you can see from the figure, the two power supplies are divided into four sectors, but only two per side, arranged diagonally, are fed. In this way, the impeller, enter four streams with hydraulic forces balanced. It will have to be the rotation of the impeller to mix the flow rates so that the output of the pump has only a single stream. The pressure drop that you will have in the pump due to the entry of water with a lower pressure, can be recovered with the widening section pressure line, dynamically applying the principle of Pascal. Which states that the pressure in a closed tank expands in all directions, but in this case, given the rotation of the pump and the presence of the check valves on inlet, it will expand only in the direction of the flow, also thanks to the reduction of the water velocity in the output section (Bernoulli's theorem)
Today, to lift water at high reservoir win high load losses of long distances using the multi-stage pumps with closed impellers. In the multistage pumps the pressure increases by means of distributors which connect the impellers in series. The distributors are formed in the body of the pump, assembled and connected in series with bolts or tie rods, by interposing the sealing gaskets between one stage and another. They consist of various channels that bring water to the center of the impeller next so that the same flow rate gradually undergoes an increase in pressure and acceleration. Basically, it can be said that the dual fuel channeled to the pump, which feeds the impeller mono stage exploiting the hydrostatic pressure external to the pump, acts as a single distributor of the flow of pressurized water, eliminating other distributors and impellers.
It 'obvious that using the technology and the fusions of a multistage pump, by modifying the first stage and making double-fed, and then, by coupling only with the last stage, we can provide a pump with low prevalence, but with a pump body suitable for withstand high hydrostatic pressures, which coupled to a motor of low power, allows recovery of the level of the upper basin (or pressurized), by the insertion of water with low pressure in the recycling circuit, entering into the impeller from the suction side, with a separate ; If the passage sections are adequate, the water that enters in the circuit is raised to the upper level by the same hydrostatic pressure existing in the recycling circuit, and the effect of the communicating vessel necessary to the condition of recycling, both due to the principle of Pascal, which as said above, it intervenes downstream of the impeller. Obviously, a pump that uses these two hydraulic principles essential for the conservation of energy, has lower costs than traditional pumps, and systems that utilize exploit to the maximum the principle of conservation of energy. The pumps are designed to be current with hydraulic principles opposed to energy conservation. If the pumps were wrong, were also wrong motors which have been coupled. And the great diffusion of the pumps in all fields of industrial and energy, it can be stated that from the point of view of energy consumption, in addition to the environmental, the first industrial revolution has failed. However, the technologies developed are valid and would allow us to quickly recover the lost time if there were less hypocrisy among those in the public and private ;
In fact, if works a multi-stage pump that for the accuracy of the machining of the rotors and distributors manages to reach pressures of hundred bars, without that the water return back, it must function also the pump with dual power supply which is based on the same principle and even the quality of the machining, while bringing through distributors, starting on the outside of the pump, four separate streams, with two different pressures, which meet, only within the impeller, not a moment before. It is also important to the shaping of the terminal part of the walls of the distributor on the profile of the impeller blades and the adjustment of the water flow entering the impeller, since if the flows will cross before, the turbulence that would be generated, would not allow the operation of the ;
In pumps dual power the rotation of the impeller as well as increased the inlet pressure, mix the two half-flows, therefore, at the outlet of pump will have a single flow and a single pressure (due to the principle of Pascal). In fact, both in a closed circuit, both in a circuit in an open vessel, where the geodetic heights coincide in suction and delivery, the prevalence of the circulation pump not dependent on the hydrostatic pressure of the system but by the load losses due to friction that exist in the circuit, which are dependent on flow rate and the speed of the flow, not by the pressure of the circuit, since water is an incompressible liquid.
Domanda patent ; 102015000048789: The modification of lifting water plants
The current state of the art of public lifting installations is characterized by the fact in a central are different pumps which add up their flow rates in same conduit, in general, raising to a tank located on a hill that distributes the water to fall. The amount of pumps in operation depends on the consumption of water detected by the lowering of the upper basin level. Therefore the operating point of the pump varies. When the pump works alone absorbs more power because it works with lower prevalence gauge and therefore higher capacity (Power consumption varies with the square of the flow rate and varies with linear proportion in relation to the prevalence).
If we observe all the figures of the systems that couple a pump with simple or double feeding and a turbine, we have to take note that these pumps from the operation point of view are different, especially, to a main aspect of the current hydraulic lifting pumps:
Those existing, working with a load manometric and a geodetic difference in level unbalanced, having a small positive suction at the intake and a high hydraulic load in delivery especially constituted by the difference in level between the two reservoirs and the length of the lifting conduct.
While in the new hydro solutions pumps are operating with a load manometric and geodetic balanced since at least one suction inlet and the outlet have the upper level in common. Therefore there is no geodetic head. But existing, however, always, a high positive head on the pump suction, and knowing that the hydrostatic head, alone, is not opposed to the kinetic energy, the system would even be unbalanced in the opposite direction to the existing lifting equipment, dispersing in heat immense energies, if we did not use a turbine to balance the hydraulic load, slowing the speed of the water, with its own resistance. In other words, because the water moves in the direction of the gravitational force pump must provide the amount of energy to overcome the inertia state but as regards the flow rate mainly depends on the passage sections in the tubes and in the pump and by height h (which is the location of potential energy). If the sections are not sufficient to obtain the desired flow rates it is necessary to increase the prevalence of the pump, but not to lift the water, which is always discharged in the lower extension of the upper reservoir with a pressure drop V2 / 2g. Obviously, as written above and below, the extension of the upper basin cannot be kilometers long and of small cross section, otherwise it is not comparable to an appendage of the tank where the water uses its own internal energy to take the form of the reservoir that contains ; Even in this case the hydraulic system adapts to the general load losses and the flow coming out from the turbine is reduced but not stopped. It may do all the calculations of the speed, the pressure loss of the machines and returns to approach the capacity of the system, or simply insert a flow meter downstream of the turbine. Based on this measurement, change the pump or the general ; But what is important is to understand the reasons why the existing lifting equipment must be modified, and especially the pumps: dividing the power in four sectors until the entry into the impeller, if we do not want continue to waste energy for infinite time against gravity to lift the water and continue to not produce the simplest sustainable energy and economic of the world.
Modification of lifting water from absorbers to power producers
The current world water management is against the general principles of conservation of resources, energy, physics and mechanics. It 'easier to understand the employment waste in one way of the water, which could be recycled. Today, recycling is too expensive from the point of view of energy since they are not built systems that bypass the universal gravitational force. In fact, everyone knows that from an energy standpoint, it is much cheaper to raise a body through an inclined plane, winning the sliding friction resistance that raise it directly. But men to improve this system, from thousands of years have invented the rolling friction, the transmission ratio belt or gears between wheels of different diameters, and today, along inclined planes consumes hundredths of energy than that which would be required for the directed lifting of the masses against the universal gravitational force. In the hydraulic sector the equivalent of the inclined plane is the exploitation of the variations of legislated sections in the formulas of the Bernoulli and Pascal's principle. But these principles alone are not enough to significantly reduce the costs of hydraulic lifting because in the plumbing industry lacked the invention of something equivalent rolling resistance, which improves overall performance through the transport machinery and mechanical lifting.
In the hydraulic sector to the invention which can be considered equivalent rolling resistance, is the invention of the pump with dual power supply on the suction side, which, combined with the Bernoulli principle, Pascal and to the principle of communicating vessels, allows to exploit the gravitational force one way, also lifting the ; Modifying the existing hydraulic lifting systems with the introduction of these pumps, the performance of the water lifting comes very close to the yield of mechanical lifting using the inclined plane and the rolling friction, although based on completely different principles. In fact, the mechanical lifting exploit much longer paths, while the hydraulic lifting movement to a quantity of much higher than that to be raised always filled water circuits, since it is the same water with the geodetic height superior to raise the water of the basin to place lower level. But the system is equally highly advantageous. Just think that recycle an m3/s of water in a thousand meters of pipe Dn 1000 requires the same energy of a m lift, as shown in the tables in this chapter.
Therefore, if we recycle at low speed 1000 L / s, we can lift about 500, with yields similar to those allowed by the mechanical lift on an inclined plane and rolling bearings. But once they were invented pumps, continuing to think about changing the hydraulic systems, you can easily understand that the hydraulic systems will largely exceed mechanic systems. In fact, the mechanical systems while increasing the yields remain consumers of energy, while the hydraulic system contains the material that can be transformed into energy, taking advantage by the energy of water located in the upper position with respect to the one placed down, without wasting water. Obviously, consuming a small part of the energy produced by the recycling of water, including that which passes in a turbine and is replaced in the recycling loop by a suction mouth of the pump with double power.
Considering that current technology allows you to build multi-stage pumps with pressures up to 100 bar (1000 m), as described above, we can use the pump bodies of the current multi-stage pumps (to withstand hydrostatic pressure) but otherwise connect them using only the first and the last stage, saving in both the absorbed power for lifts, both in the construction of pumps, both in the construction of the motors.
To understand the extent of energy savings it suffices to note one table showing the pressure drop of the pipes calculated with the formula Bazin- Fantoli: (1000 * 4 * V2 / C2 * D) where (C = 87 / (1 + 2g / √D). from this table we can detect the loss of load of a thousand meters of pipes in the case of the tube Dn 1000 (with a flow rate of 1180 l / s) it is equal to / = to of the power required for lifting.
This simple reflection brought myself to change lifting equipment and water pumps, not to counter the law of conservation of energy, but to accommodate it. In fact, you must first design the plants, favoring the atmospheric pressure and gravity, then we design machines that are used to establishing installations. The first that must be changed are the existing pumps, which are hydraulic machinery operators who, receiving mechanical power from an electric motor or internal combustion, the transmit, to the liquid which passes through them to increase the pressure. This pressure, in most cases, is used just to overcome the force of gravity and atmospheric pressure.
Mine is not a criticism of the project carried out and the Italian technology, so much so that as the installer, I proudly participated in the realization of many of this work. But knowing that in the world there are many thousands of lifting water of all kinds, I think it's been helpful to reflect calmly on these works as pensioner. Infact, public authorities, large contracting firms, universities, consider acquired state of the art of pumping stations and not seek alternative solutions, however, creativity combined with the experience of those who have seen the implementation of many plants, including by playing small roles , it can lead to the development of alternative solutions, which cannot be shot down without any discussion. The problem is how to convince the large public authorities, large companies, universities, who may have the wrong solutions without hurting their professional pride. The problem is not local but global. I think the stakes are so high that personal pride should be cast aside. Anyone can make mistakes, especially, myself, that cannot compare to anyone and cannot spend a few thousand euro in experiments, but it's worth to try these solutions. The reputation of a pensioner is worth very little. Risk more powerful that undervalue these solutions.
I do not think to violate the principles of conservation of energy using the hydraulic principles that are confirmed authoritatively in communicating vessels, in Pascal, Newton, Einstein. I think valorize them in contrast to the current technology, which uses the energy produced with fuels to overcome the force of gravity and atmospheric pressure. The undersigned uses these physical resources, existing in nature in the inertial state, by using machines and systems specifically designed so that the lifting of the water occurs with the least possible energy expenditure. But at the same time applying Bernoulli's theorem, which allows the use of positive head on the pump, I could not realize that, not only we can save energy, but also produce it by changing the pumps.
The hydrostatic pressure in a circuit full of water in the open tank, while not influencing the prevalence necessary to the circulation of the pump, determines the internal pressure and can be measured in meters, being the distance between the upper level of the water relative to the axis the circulation pump. If we assume the level of the upper basin place to twenty meters of height, and the lower one to two meters, we have a feed pressure of 2 kg/cm2 on a mouth and kg/cm2 on the other mouth. The rotation of the impeller, common to the two flows allows, in addition to pressure increase, due to the characteristics of the pump and of the circuit, supposed of kg / cm2, even mixing and the sum of the two ; Into the delivery pipe that leaves the pump, due to the principle of Pascal, the unit pressure in Kg/cm2, spreads in the entire section of the tube, so that, if we entered from the suction side with two sections equivalent DN 100 (78,5 + = 157 cm2) and leave with only one section DN 150 (176 cm2), the total force of lifting water becomes 440 kg (176 cm2 * kg / cm2), while the input to pump was 172 kg, 7 kg ( *2 + * ). It 'clear that the total force of 440 kg at the pump outlet, which is greater than the force input, is due to the pressure recovery (or expansion) caused by the enlargement of the section of the supply pipe from DN 100 to 150. This force is sufficient to recycle the two courses ( + = l / s) and to overcome the load losses of the circuit, while considering that half of the water is not recycled but raised, not by the pump but from the pressure recovery due to the increase of the section, according to the principle of Pascal. In fact, only one-fifth of the force F is provided by the pump motor.
This system can be used both to protect against floods (pumping stations), both to raise and distribute drinking water or irrigation, both to lift water from wells (using pumps and turbines submerged). In all cases producing energy instead of consuming ; Only the inexperienced who cannot read hydraulic diagrams can accuse me of violating the principles of conservation of energy. The real problem is that no one ever thought to realize these plans, since it was necessary to make proper inventions, such as the combination of the pumps with the turbines, which has never been done, and the change of the pump, creating the double feed.
However are not sufficient only the hydraulic principles, must enter into the pump body and the impeller in such a way that the two inlet pressures do not meet before they are in contact with the impeller. Because, if this were to happen, the water with higher pressure would hamper to the water with lower pressure to entry into the pump. Therefore the two streams of water, not only must be separated, but also guided and shaped on the rotating blades of the impeller. But the advantages that you will have with the birth of dual supply pumps are immense because allowing water recycling allows saving water, hydroelectric energy production without consuming the water and you will finally have an alternative sustainable of thermal energy Mobile, as explained below. For this reason, the dual supply pump on the suction side is the simplest but also the most powerful inventions of our ;