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 EN COURS 

Statistical Mechanics of Learning (SMILE)

Date du début: 1 sept. 2017, Date de fin: 31 août 2022,

"Computers are now able to recognize people, to tell a dog from a cat, or to process speech so efficiently that they can answer complicated questions. This was still impossible only a decade ago. This progress is largely due to the development of the artificial “deep-learned neural networks”. Nowadays, “deep learning” is revolutionizing our life, prompting an economic battle between internet giant ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

The Enigmatic Universality of Glass (UNIGLASS)

Date du début: 1 mars 2017, Date de fin: 28 févr. 2022,

The explanation for the distinct low temperature behavior of amorphous solids (glasses) is a long-standing open question. Specific puzzles include the nature of the low energy excitations (LEEs) that are responsible for their low temperature thermal and mechanical behavior and the origin of the remarkable universality of their low temperature mechanical dissipation. The phenomenological tunneling ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
"The purpose of this project is to use the ubiquitous nature of certain combinatorial topological objects called maps in order to unveil deep connections between several areas of mathematics. Maps, that describe the embedding of a graph into a surface, appear in probability theory, mathematical physics, enumerative geometry or graph theory, and different combinatorial viewpoints on these objects h ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

Origin of volatile elements in the inner Solar System (VOLATILIS)

Date du début: 1 févr. 2017, Date de fin: 31 janv. 2022,

The objective of project VOLATILIS is to investigate the origin(s) of volatile elements on Earth and other planetary bodies in the inner Solar System. Since primitive and differentiated asteroids, planetary embryos, and the Earth-Moon system represent different stages of planet formation, studies of chondritic meteorites and samples from Vesta, Mars, the Moon, and Earth can provide constraints on ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
Difficult-to-treat chronic and recurrent bacterial infections are often caused by bacteria that are sensitive to commonly used antibiotics. The reasons for this recalcitrance are frequently unknown. However, when grown in the laboratory, all bacteria, including major pathogens form persister cells that are multidrug tolerant, a phenomenon thought to be a major factor underlying recalcitrant infect ...
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 2

 EN COURS 

The Genetics and Physiology of Growth and Size Determination (VitruVius)

Date du début: 1 janv. 2017, Date de fin: 31 déc. 2021,

Body size is an intrinsic property of living organisms that is intimately linked to the developmental program to produce fit individuals with proper proportions. Final size is the result of both genetic determinants and sophisticated mechanisms adapting size to available resources. Classical regeneration and transplantation experiments have established that different body parts grow according to a ...
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 2

 EN COURS 

Authority and Innovation in Early Franciscan Thought (c. 1220-56) (INNOVATION)

Date du début: 1 janv. 2017, Date de fin: 31 déc. 2021,

INNOVATION anticipates a breakthrough in scholarly understanding of the medieval origins of modern Western philosophy. This breakthrough will be achieved by exposing the pioneering nature of early thirteenth-century Franciscan thought and its pivotal significance for the subsequent formation of the Western philosophical identity. The work of early Franciscans has largely been neglected in scholarl ...
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 2

 EN COURS 

Macrophage aging and rejuvenation (MacAGE)

Date du début: 1 janv. 2017, Date de fin: 31 déc. 2021,

Tissue resident macrophages are essentially present in every organ of the body and perform critical functions in immunity, tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Recent evidence shows that resident macrophages can originate from embryonic progenitors and be maintained in tissues long term by local proliferation independently of monocytes. This self-renewal ability, however, appears to decline with a ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

Inverse Problems and Flows (IPFLOW)

Date du début: 1 janv. 2017, Date de fin: 31 déc. 2021,

In this project, we propose to study mixing and rigidity properties of a large class of flows in geometry and dynamical systems using novel microlocal and spectral methods. Such methods, recently developed for flows with hyperbolicity, are based on the construction of new functional spaces, adapted to the considered flow, on which the generating vector field is Fredholm with discrete spectrum, kno ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
Phytoplankton is not only at the basis of the marine food chain but also an important buffer of climate changes, given that marine photosynthesis is responsible of 50% of the CO2 fixation on Earth. Despite their central roles in the Ocean, our understanding of the forces that shape the dynamics and structuration of phytoplankton communities is still limited by major methodological constraints in t ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

The importance of transcriptional coordination during development (SYNC_DEV)

Date du début: 1 janv. 2017, Date de fin: 31 déc. 2021,

Gene expression is precisely controlled in time and space during the development of Metazoan organisms. While numerous studies have established how spatial information is integrated by gene regulatory regions, called enhancers, little is known about the temporal aspects of transcription. Most of our insights into gene regulation stem from the use of fixed preparations where timing is artificially ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
Many animals have the ability to regenerate parts of their body following injury or amputation. While there is great biological and medical interest in this process, many fundamental questions remain unanswered, because complex organ regeneration is poorly represented in classic model organisms; flies, nematodes and mammals have limited regenerative abilities, in contrast to flatworms, crustaceans ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

The Baryon Picture of the Cosmos (ByoPiC)

Date du début: 1 janv. 2017, Date de fin: 31 déc. 2021,

The cosmological paradigm of structure formation is both extremely successful and plagued by many enigmas. Not only the nature of the main matter component, dark matter, shaping the structure skeleton in the form of a cosmic web, is mysterious; but also half of the ordinary matter (i.e. baryons) at late times of the cosmic history, remains unobserved, or hidden! ByoPiC focuses on this key and curr ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

Impact of NMDA receptor diversity in sensory information processing (SensoNMDA)

Date du début: 1 déc. 2016, Date de fin: 30 nov. 2021,

Synaptic variability between neuronal connections is thought to contribute to brain’s remarkable information processing capacities. In the adult brain, the density as well as subunit composition of synaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs) varies considerably between synapses and between neurons. Despite the well documented heterogeneity of NMDARs the functional relevance of such diversity is poorly known. ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

Integrated Arctic observation system (INTAROS)

Date du début: 1 déc. 2016, Date de fin: 30 nov. 2021,

The overall objective of INTAROS is to develop an integrated Arctic Observation System (iAOS) by extending, improving and unifying existing systems in the different regions of the Arctic. INTAROS will have a strong multidisciplinary focus, with tools for integration of data from atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere and terrestrial sciences, provided by institutions in Europe, North America and Asia. Sate ...
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 41

 EN COURS 

Physiologically relevant microfluidic neuro-engineering (CONNEXIO)

Date du début: 1 nov. 2016, Date de fin: 31 oct. 2021,

Developing minimalistic biological neural networks and observing their functional activity is crucial to decipher the information processing in the brain. This project aims to address two major challenges: to design and fabricate in vitro biological neural networks that are organized in physiological relevant ways and to provide a label-free monitoring platform capable of observing neural activity ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

The Urban Revolution and the Political (urban-rev politics)

Date du début: 1 nov. 2016, Date de fin: 31 oct. 2021,

This project is a transnational and comparative study of the political implications of the contemporary ‘urban revolution,’ namely the sweeping socio-cultural, economic, and territorial transformations through which the urban becomes the predominant mode of existence of societies across the world. Across the social sciences and as well as journalistic literatures, there has been a remarkable proli ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

A sub-percent distance scale from binaries and Cepheids (CepBin)

Date du début: 1 nov. 2016, Date de fin: 31 oct. 2021,

We propose to carry out a project which will produce a decisive step towards improving the accuracy of the Hubble constant as determined from the Cepheid-SN Ia method to 1%, by using 28 extremely rare eclipsing binary systems in the LMC which offer the potential to determine their distances to 1%. To achieve this accuracy we will reduce the main error in the binary method by interferometric angula ...
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 4

 EN COURS 
Implants are often employed in orthopaedic and dental surgeries. However, risks of failure, which are difficult to anticipate, are still experienced and may have dramatic consequences. Failures are due to degraded bone remodeling at the bone-implant interface, a multiscale phenomenon of an interdisciplinary nature which remains poorly understood. The objective of BoneImplant is to provide a better ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
This project aims at simulating the processes that took place in the early Solar System to determine how these processes shaped the chemical and isotope compositions of solids that accreted to ultimately form terrestrial planets. Planetary materials exhibit mass dependent and mass independent isotope signatures and their origin and relationships are not fully understood. This proposal will be base ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
Femtosecond lasers can now provide intensities such that the light field induces relativistic motion of large ensembles of electrons. The ultimate goal of this Ultra-High Intensity (UHI) Physics is the control of relativistic motion of matter with light, which requires a deep understanding of this extreme regime of laser-matter interaction. Such a control holds the promise of major scientific and ...
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 2

 EN COURS 

Reproducing EArthquakes in the Laboratory: Imaging, Speed and Mineralogy (REALISM)

Date du début: 1 oct. 2016, Date de fin: 30 sept. 2021,

We propose a simple idea: to reproduce earthquakes in the laboratory. Because earthquakes are spectacular examples of uncontrollable catastrophes, the opportunity to study them under controlled conditions in the laboratory is unique and is, in fact, the only way to understand the details of the earthquake source physics.The aim of the project is interdisciplinary, at the frontiers between Rock Fra ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
The present project focuses on a barely scratched aspect of invasive cognitive brain-computer interfaces (cBCIs), i.e. closed-loop invasive cBCIs to augment and restore attentional functions. Its aim is to achieve an efficient enhanced cognition protocol both in the healthy brain and in the damaged brain and to study the local and global plasticity mechanisms underlying these effects. The project ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
The goal of this project is to develop an innovative biosensor for the non-invasive, painless and real-time detection of volatile biomarkers in the exhaled breath of patients. Volatile biomarkers have been identified for several diseases including cancers, diabetes, cystic fibrosis and neurodegeneration. A miniaturized system for fast and simple breath-analysis would not only improve the early det ...
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 2

 EN COURS 

The Tibetan Army of the Dalai Lamas (1642-1959) (TibArmy)

Date du début: 1 oct. 2016, Date de fin: 30 sept. 2021,

TibArmy proposes to undertake a study of a previously unresearched subject: the Tibetan army during the period of the Buddhist government of the Dalai Lamas, known as the Ganden Phodrang, from 1642 to 1959. This government was the heir to a robust military culture with long experience in the defence of Buddhism since the Tibetan Imperial Period (7th-9th centuries); however, from its inception it d ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

Particle dynamics in the flow of complex suspensions (PaDyFlow)

Date du début: 1 sept. 2016, Date de fin: 31 août 2021,

Particle laden flows are ubiquitous in nature and industrial applications. Particle trajectories determine transport in porous media or biomedical conducts and effective suspension properties dictate flow behavior in food processing or biofluid flow. For a better control it is necessary to know how to predict these processes from the involved particle and flow properties. However, current theory ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
Thousands of exoplanets have now been found. In the next decade, the grand challenge is to characterize their atmospheres. This is the only way to unravel the origin of the wild, unexpected diversity we have uncovered. For this task, there are several planned missions—JWST being our next best opportunity. However, to be ready for the analysis and interpretation of such high-precision observations, ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

New paradigms for latent factor estimation (FACTORY)

Date du début: 1 sept. 2016, Date de fin: 31 août 2021,

Data is often available in matrix form, in which columns are samples, and processing of such data often entails finding an approximate factorisation of the matrix in two factors. The first factor yields recurring patterns characteristic of the data. The second factor describes in which proportions each data sample is made of these patterns. Latent factor estimation (LFE) is the problem of finding ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
Despite its widespread occurrence across the tree of life, many questions still remain unanswered concerning the fascinating phenomenon of convergent evolution. Ant-eating mammals constitute a textbook example of morphological convergence with at least five independent origins in placentals (armadillos, anteaters, aardvarks, pangolins, and aardwolves). The large extent of convergent morphological ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

Scale-Free Control for Complex Physical Network Systems (Scale-FreeBack)

Date du début: 1 sept. 2016, Date de fin: 31 août 2021,

Technology achievements were typically built upon fundamental theoretical findings, but nowadays technology seems to be evolving faster than our ability to develop new concepts and theories. Intelligent traffic systems benefit from many technical innovations, for example. Mobile phones, radars, cameras and magnetometers can be used to measure traffic evolution and provide large sets of valuable da ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

Extreme Ultraviolet Circular Time-Resolved Spectroscopy (EXCITERS)

Date du début: 1 sept. 2016, Date de fin: 31 août 2021,

Chiral molecules exist as two forms, so-called enantiomers, which have essentially the same physical and chemical properties and can only be distinguished via their interaction with a chiral system, such as circularly polarized light. Many biological processes are chiral-sensitive and unraveling the dynamical aspects of chirality is of prime importance for chemistry, biology and pharmacology. Stud ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
Rome, centre of the Catholic Church and capital of the Papal States, strewn with churches and religious institutions, was also, in the 17th and 18th centuries, the scene of intense conflicts and rivalries between some twenty leading aristocratic families, highly adept at organising musical, theatrical and choreographic performances to display their political sympathies. The artistic life that anim ...
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 2

 EN COURS 
The main geochemical features of the mantles of terrestrial planets and asteroids can be attributed to differentiation events that occurred during or shortly after the formation of the Solar System. Numerous questions remain regarding the Earth’s bulk composition and the most likely scenario for its evolution prior to the last major differentiation event caused by a giant impact leading to the for ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
This proposal focuses on the mathematics of three cross-disciplinary, very active and deeply interlaced research themes: interacting particle systems with kinetic constraints, bootstrap percolation cellular automata and mixed order phase transitions. These topics belong to the fertile area of mathematics at the intersection of probability and mathematical statistical mechanics. They are also extr ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

The geometry of modular representations of reductive algebraic groups (ModRed)

Date du début: 1 sept. 2016, Date de fin: 31 août 2021,

The main theme of this proposal is the Geometric Representation Theory of reductive algebraic groups over algebraically closed fields of positive characteristic. Our primary goal is to obtain character formulas for simple and for indecomposable tilting representations of such groups, by developing a geometric framework for their categories of representations.Obtaining such formulas has been one of ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
The objective of this ambitious research proposal is to push forward the frontier of computational cosmology by significantly improving the precision of numerical models on par with the increasing richness and depth of surveys that aim to shed light on the nature of dark matter and dark energy.Using new phase-space techniques for the simulation and analysis of dark matter, completely new insights ...
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 1

 EN COURS 
Soft materials are irreplaceable in engineering applications where large reversible deformations are needed, and in life sciences to mimic ever more closely or replace a variety of living tissues. While mechanical strength may not be essential for all applications, excessive brittleness is a strong limitation. Yet predicting if a soft material will be tough or brittle from its molecular compositio ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

The giant impact and the Earth and Moon formation (IMPACT)

Date du début: 1 sept. 2016, Date de fin: 31 août 2021,

Very little is understood of the physics governing the Giant Impact and the subsequent formation of the Moon. According to this model an impactor hit the proto-Earth; the resulting energy was enough to melt and partially vaporize the two bodies generating a large protolunar disk, from which the Earth-Moon couple formed. Hydrodynamic simulations of the impact and the subsequent evolution of the pro ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

Non Uniform Hyperbolicity in Global Dynamics (NUHGD)

Date du début: 1 sept. 2016, Date de fin: 31 août 2021,

An important part of differentiable dynamics has been developed from the uniformly hyperbolic systems. These systems have been introduced by Smale in the 60's in order to address chaotic behavior and are now deeply understood from the qualitative, symbolic and statistic viewpoints. They correspond to the structurally stable dynamics. It appeared that large classes of non-hyperbolic systems also ex ...
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 1

 EN COURS 

Bio-inspired Spin-Torque Computing Architectures (bioSPINspired)

Date du début: 1 sept. 2016, Date de fin: 31 août 2021,

In the bioSPINspired project, I propose to use my experience and skills in spintronics, non-linear dynamics and neuromorphic nanodevices to realize bio-inspired spin torque computing architectures. I will develop a bottom-up approach to build spintronic data processing systems that perform low power ‘cognitive’ tasks on-chip and could ultimately complement our traditional microprocessors. I will s ...
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 1